1. Parts of Speech
In English language, certain words acquire different meanings when they are used in different grammatical positions. For example:
Ashok was scolded for his bad play. (noun).
Ashok played the game well. (verb)
In both cases, the meaning of the word, 'play' changes depending upon whether it has been used as a noun (play) or a verb (played). Therefore, the function for which a particular word is used gives it its meaning. The different functions of a word are called the PARTS OF SPEECH.
Parts of Speech in English Language
The English language, traditionally has eight parts of speech. But in modern grammar, two more have been added. Thus, we have ten parts of speech, which can be categorized as,
Group A Open - class items, such as:
i) Noun - John, room, question, play
ii) Adjective - Happy, new, small, round
iii) Adverb - Really, quickly, slowly, then, there
iv) Verb - Search, play, grow, look, has, be, do
Group B Closed-system items
i) Article - the, a, an
ii) Demonstrative - that, this
iii) Pronoun - he, they, anybody, one, which
iv) Preposition - of, at, in, without, in spite of
v) Conjunction - and, when, that, although
vi) Interjection - oh, ah, ugh, phew, alas
Group A consists of the parts of speech, which grow in numbers and are indefinitely extendable. It is not possible to draw a list of all the nouns in English. New items are constantly being created and added to the list of already existing nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs. Group B, on the other hand, consists of those items which can't normally be extended by the creation of additional numbers.
Parts of Speech and Sentence Correction
A sentence is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. The Parts of speech are the elements of a sentence. Very often, it is in these small constituent elements of language that major sentential errors occur. A bottom-up approach to the study of the language can help us to tackle and master the sentence correction section. Therefore, it is essential to break up the language into its smallest constituent parts and try to understand each one of them separately.