Indian & Western Educational Philosophy

Indian & Western Educational Philosophy

Author: Prof. A. P. Sharma
Format: Paperback
Language: English
ISBN: 9788178062013
Code: 9701A
Pages: 271
List Price: Rs. 195.00
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All important matters relating to educational philosophy that have bearing on human life and conduct have been taken into consideration quite exhaustively in this book. Care has also been taken to discuss each topic quite elaborately so that the reader can have a clearer view of each school of philosophy.

Educational implications are highlighted in bold. Each chapter has a set of questions which can possibly be asked in any examination relating to education. Most answers to these questions are implicit specifically within the emboldened text contained within each chapter.

The book will be highly useful for the M.Ed. and B. Ed. students of any Indian University and also to them who wish to take any competitive examinations at a level where education is one of the papers to be examined.

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About the Author(s)

Prof. A.P. Sharma, a post-graduate in English literature, Education and Philosophy, taught in Indian and Nigerian Universities for almost thirty nine years and also visited Willamette University, Oregon, USA.

He has so far published twenty six books in the field of education, philosophy, self-help and inspirational areas in India and abroad. He has also published around eighty articles in leading journals in the country and abroad and has supervised eight students to obtain their PhDs. in the field of education.


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Section A
Indian Philosophical Schools
Part I
Chapter One
Indian Philosophical Foundations, The Believers (Astikas), The Non-believers (Nastiks), Universal Characteristics of Indian Philosophical Schools, The Common Features, Accusation against Indian Philosophy, Practical Attempt to Attain the Truth, Educationally Invaluable, Questions

Chapter Two
The Philosophy Contained in the Vedas, Historical Interpretations, Interpretations Contained in the Hymns, Questions

Chapter Three
Philosophy Implicit in the Upanishads, Historical Perspective, Upanishads as Defined, Divergent Meanings Implicit in the Upanishads, Main Issues in the Upanishads, Methods of the Upanishads, Upanisadic Metaphysics, Attainment of Spiritual Realization, The State of Self-realization, Questions

Chapter Four
The Philosophy Contained in the Bhagwad Gita, Historical Backdrop, Importance of Gita for the People, Relation of the Gita with the Upanishads, The Niskam Karma, as the Central Teaching, Metaphysics in the Gita, The Concept of World, The Self Ethics in the Gita, Niskama Karma, Two types of Elements, Virtues, Educational Implications, Questions

Chapter Five
Jain Philosophy, Historical Perspective, Categories of Knowledge, Kinds of Pramana, Direct Knowledge, Mati and Srta Jnana, Indirect Knowledge, Syad Vada, Anekantavada, Durnity Naya & Pramana, The Importance of the word Syat, Criticism of Syadvada, Jiva Tattva, The Attributes of Jivas, Proofs of the Existence of Soul, Bondage & Liberation, The way to sllain Moksa, Dharma, Nirjana Element, Triratna or Three Jewels, Questions

Chapter Six
The Philosophy of Buddha, Historical Perspective, Main Characteristics, Four Noble Truths, Nirvana, Result of Nirvana, Buddha’s Middle Path, Eightfold Path, Doctrine of Karma, Theory of no-soul, Doctrine of Momentriness, Questions

Chapter Seven
Nyaya Philosophy, Historical Perspective, Epistemology, Perception, Inference, Constituents of Inference, The Concept of God, Proofs of the Existence of God, Criticism, Questions

Chapter Eight
The Advaita Vedant Philosophy, Historical Perspective, Epistemology, The relation of Reasoning and Scriptures, METAPHYSICS, Proofs of God’s Existence, God as creator, The Self, The Doctrine Of Maya, Questions

Part II
Chapter One : Sri Aurobindo

Chapter Two : M. K. Gandhi

Chapter Three : J. Krishnamurti

Chapter Four : Rabindranath Tagore

Chapter Five : Swami Vivekananda

Section B
Western Philosophical Systems

Chapter One
Philosophy and Education, What is Philosophy? What is Education? Philosophy and Education, Philosophy of Education, The Scope of Philosophy of Education, Questions

Chapter Two
Elements of Philosophy, Metaphysics, Cosmology, Teleology, Ontology, Epistemology, How is Knowledge Acquired? Logic, Ethics, Aesthetics, Questions

Chapter Three
The Problem of What is good, What is good?, Is Education Good?, Education and the Common Good, Good Curriculum, The Good Pupil, The Good Teacher, The Good School, Questions

Chapter Four
Naturalism in Education, Historical Perspective, Types of Naturalism, Naturalism and Education, Influence of Naturalistic Education, Questions

Chapter Five
Idealism in Education, A Historical View, The Types of Idealism, Idealism in Education, Questions

Chapter Six
Realism in Education, A Brief Historical View, What is Realism, Types of Realism, Realism and Education, The Impact of Realism on Education, Questions

Chapter Seven
Pragmatism in Education, Historical Perspective, What is Pragmatism?, Pragmatism and Education, Influence of Pragmatism on Education, Questions

Chapter Eight
Existentialism in Education, A Historical View, Basic Elements of Existentialism, Existentialism and Education, The Curriculum, Impact of Existentialistic Education, Questions

Section C
Islam, References

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Ethics in the Gita

God-realization is the ultimate goal of man according to the Gita. It teaches the Varnashram Dharma and its fulfillment becomes a duty as it has been proclaimed by Lord Krishna, Who says that four Varnas have been created by Him according to the distinction of qualities and actions. God realization also leads to the knowledge of the nature of soul as it is only a form of God. The soul is to be experienced internally and also in the external world. As God is the controller of self and physical world, the soul is merely an instrument of His purpose. In a similar way the Gita holds that public service is as much important as God realization. Sri Krishna reflects in the Gita that a yogi who keeps himself busy with the welfare of all beings, goes to Him. Social service pushes man towards God. Duty should be done not simply for duty sake but for the sake of betterment of the society.

Niskama Karma
The Gita preaches karmayoga which helps man to be free from bondage by keeping himself active. This yoga is also called skill in action. Thus, Niskama Karma is not unintentional action but rather an action with an intention of submission to God without possessing any desire of result. Sri Krishna while discussing the meaning of Karma provides various definitions of Niskama Karma and enlightens him and us all about it. In the eighteenth chapter of the Gita Lord Krishna further elaborates the meaning of Niskama Karma to Arjuna while advising him to fight as it is his duty to fight against those who are sinful and who tend to be unjust to others on account of various reasons. He then tells him that a man should pursue his duties according to his own profession and Varna and Asram. The inherent duty of a Kshatriya is to fight, and therefore, he must fight. To deviate from duty or to do it under obligation is immoral. Only the activity that is done with personal motive and without any free desire has some moral importance. Thus, the Gita has synthesized abstinence and action in an excellent way and has provided a clearer meaning of duty to be performed voluntarily.

Two Types of Elements
In view of the Gita's philosophy the world has two kinds of elements - true and false, which are permanent and temporary respectively. Truth cannot be ever destroyed and falsehood is always transitory. The soul is true, indestructible, permanent and immutable. It is not changeable but everything else is changeable, and false. The body is false as it is born and it dies. It is destructible and transitory and which is born, must die. All objects of the world are perishable. None can stop them to take birth and to die.

The Gita has described the divine qualities or the virtues quite elaborately. Sri Krishna says that one who has virtues he has realized God. The person who has realized God is free from malice, egoism, delight, anger and troubles. He is friendly, forgiving, is compassionate, contented, united with God, keeps control on his body, mind and senses, is impartial, pure, wise and has complete resolve and determination. He is never annoyed or feels offended, does not rejoice or grieves and possesses no desires. He has no attachments and is full of devotion to God.

Educational Implications
The Gita contains a lot that can influence the realm of education during all times. It clarifies how one should follow one’s duty according to one’s Varna Ashram and what is the right meaning of Niskama Karma?; which is often misunderstood by most of the people even if they read the Gita regularly. The meaning of Varna Ashram according to the Gita is to follow the profession according to one’s desire and not according to one birth in a family. It is so unfortunate that we have gone too far in misunderstanding the meaning of Varna Ashram. Consequently we have to bring changes to our constitution time to time to redeem the downtrodden who must not be treated in the manner they were being treated at the time of country’s independence. No education can fulfil its obligations towards its pupils if it teaches discrimination. Although much has been done in that direction, yet a lot still needs to be done as people must follow values in the right perspective rather than by the force of the law. The most important contribution of the Gita is the idea of Niskama Karma which is also misunderstood by most people even though they read the Gita very regularly. The idea of serving society is one of the greatest ideas that any religious book can provide to its people. It can only be done if our education can create such an environment for our students and provide them examples by our teachers whose responsibility in that respect is great. It is not something like Kant’s dictum of ‘duty for duty but duty for the society as desired by God. If one is totally submerged in Him, totally surrenders to God, then whatever he does, is in line with God’s desire, and is also right. And God always desires us to help our people. Thus, the Gita’s contributions in the field of education is lot if it is adhered to properly. Besides, the Gita also elaborately defines the meaning of Virtues. Such virtues are always required and need to be cultivated through our education with the help of the right kind of teachers and good environment of the school.

1. What is the central teaching of the Gita? What are its educational implications? Discuss critically. 2. What is common between the Gita and the Upanishads? To what extent does the Gita differs from the Upanishads? 3. What kind of values does the Gita prescribe for a man? How can they be fostered in our current educational environment at school level? 4. To what extent is the meaning of Niskama Karma properly understood by most of the people? What is its right meaning contained in the Gita? What bearing does it have on our education system? 5. Discuss the ethical views propounded by the Gita. How far are those views applicable in modern times?

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